High quality Assured AM Course of Goes Zero to 1200 – Metrology and High quality Information
Additive Manufacturing (AM) presents monumental potential for optimized and new elements alike. At Porsche, 3D printing know-how is already being employed in a number of areas. And now, a joint challenge from Porsche, Mahle and Trumpf, in cooperation with ZEISS, has efficiently 3D-printed extremely confused drive elements for the primary time, utilizing generative processes to fabricate pistons for the high-performance engine of Porsche’s top-of-the-line 911 mannequin: the GT2 RS. Your entire staff headed by Porsche challenge lead Frank Ickinger is greater than happy: “This makes a efficiency increase of as much as 30 horsepower conceivable with the 700PS twin turbo engine, and with increased ranges of effectivity at that.” The ‘printed’ high-performance piston challenge is a complete success. A milestone within the historical past of additive manufacturing.
4 Companions – One Goal
As in motor sports activities, the event and manufacture of the elements is a staff effort. The challenge is headed by Porsche. Mahle, a cooperation companion of the challenge, gives the requisite know-how for the event and manufacture of drive elements and for additive manufacturing. Trumpf is the challenge’s specialist for additive manufacturing methods, colloquially often called 3D printers. The standard and efficiency of the supplies used and of the elements is ensured by way of options from ZEISS. High quality assurance is important throughout the various particular person steps of the manufacturing course of, from powder to completed part. To satisfy the precise necessities of this type of manufacturing, a complete high quality assurance course of was developed by ZEISS. The objective of the challenge, other than manufacturing the piston prototypes and thus bettering the effectivity of the elements, is to develop an additive manufacturing course of able to assembly the very best high quality requirements whereas remaining lean and cost-efficient to make sequence manufacturing attainable. This course of will finally be used for the manufacture of different elements as nicely.
The Additive Manufacturing Course of
On the basis of this manufacturing course of is a metallic powder produced from a particular alloy developed by Mahle. The powder is utilized layer by layer inside a metallic 3D printer from Trumpf and fused at selective factors utilizing a laser. Over the course of 12 hours, 1,200 layers are utilized to type the piston blanks. To make sure that the 3D printed pistons meet the excessive necessities, a complete high quality evaluation is required. “With this piston materials particularly, which had by no means been printed earlier than, it was in fact a problem to generate the suitable part high quality. With the assistance of ZEISS, we have been ready to do that very nicely,” summarizes Frank Ickinger from Porsche’s Superior Engineering Powertrain division.
High quality assurance is important throughout the various particular person steps of the manufacturing course of, from powder to completed part. To satisfy the precise necessities of this type of manufacturing, a complete high quality assurance course of has been developed by ZEISS. The objective of the challenge, other than manufacturing the piston prototypes and thus bettering the effectivity of the elements, was to develop an additive manufacturing course of able to assembly the very best high quality requirements whereas remaining lean and cost-efficient to make sequence manufacturing attainable.
Optimizing the Design
A giant benefit of this course of is that it allows the creation of a novel bionic structure. Topology optimization is used to simulate the load paths and therefore to outline a construction acceptable for the load. As such, the advance growth challenge is ready to obtain a weight discount in its pistons of 10 p.c as in comparison with the welded sequence pistons. The 3D printed piston prototypes additionally function an built-in cooling channel — this may not be attainable with customary manufacturing strategies. “With the brand new, lighter pistons, we’re capable of enhance engine pace, scale back thermal load and optimize combustion,” explains Frank Ickinger.
From Powder to Efficiency Parts
The beginning materials used to 3D print the pistons is a powder developed by Mahle. However not all powders are the identical. The powder’s particle measurement distribution, particle form, chemical composition and porosity contained in the powder particle are examples of properties which may affect part high quality. The truth that the powder’s properties can change every time it’s reused have to be taken under consideration, and deviations have to be detected in a fashion that’s acceptable for the manufacturing course of. For instance, if the powder’s particle measurement distribution adjustments on account of repeated use, the standard of the utilized powder layer could also be affected, and concurrently the danger of pores forming in consequence, or of different part defects arising, could enhance dramatically.
Mild microscopes, scanning electron microscopes and X-ray computed tomography from ZEISS are used to research the standard of the powder earlier than and after piston manufacturing, and the microstructure of the completed part is examined as a way to establish defects or property traits. By way of additional processing of the evaluation information and extra analysis processes, it’s attainable to find out optimized settings for printing.
Profitable print outcomes should additionally undergo a wide range of post-processing steps to make sure that the fabric and part properties are optimum. Throughout course of growth, for instance, the part’s construction might be inspected utilizing specifically geared up scanning electron microscopes or X-ray computed tomography earlier than and after the warmth remedy processes. To investigate the impression of particular person manufacturing steps on the ultimate high quality of the part, an optical 3D scanner or industrial computed tomography are used along with a coordinate measuring machine. The flexibility to mix these procedures is a decisive issue.
The pistons nonetheless on the print mattress have been scanned utilizing a 3D scanner. As soon as they’re faraway from the mattress, the person manufacturing steps in addition to the inner buildings might be inspected utilizing computed tomography whereas defect evaluation is carried out on the similar time. On the finish, a ultimate measurement is carried out with the coordinate measuring machine.
The core functionality of ZEISS’ complete high quality assurance course of is the linking of all information throughout the varied analyses.
“All in all what we get in course of growth is a high quality assurance course of which is full and interlinked throughout its numerous elements. From this, we’re then capable of receive the data vital for guaranteeing part high quality and for a future economical high quality assurance idea,” explains Dr. Bernhard Wiedemann, Director Additive Manufacturing Course of & Management, Carl Zeiss Industrielle Messtechnik GmbH.
On the Check Bench
Now the 3D printed pistons should head to the check stand and show themselves within the GT2 RS engine. In a 200-hour endurance run on the check stand, the elements are subjected to 24 hours of high-speed driving, 135 hours of full load and 25 hours of towing load at numerous engine speeds, continuous. “If 3D printed elements can stand up to hundreds equivalent to these, it’s attainable to conceive of 3D printing many different vehicle elements as nicely,” says Frank Ickinger enthusiastically. “Although we simulated every part, to see the pistons work with none issues on the check stand — that makes me very proud,” provides Volker Schall, Head of Product Design at MAHLE Worldwide GmbH. In the long run, the outcomes impressed many extra individuals than simply the engineers. All the pistons handed the demanding checks with no single failure. A transparent signal that the standard assurance course of works correctly.
Pioneers of Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing presents monumental potential for optimized and new elements. Combustion engines, for instance, might be improved and made extra environmentally-friendly. However there are additionally many alternatives to make use of these manufacturing strategies in e-mobility as nicely.
“We’ve achieved pioneering work in additive manufacturing with this challenge,” says Dr. Bernhard Wiedemann in regards to the collaboration with Porsche, Mahle and Trumpf. “The ensuing course of by which the pistons are manufactured and on the similar time the standard is analyzed and ensured throughout the complete manufacturing course of is considered one of a sort.”
Further design freedom, light-weight building and useful integration mixed with high quality assurance from ZEISS. Your entire staff behind Porsche challenge lead Frank Ickinger is greater than happy. The ‘printed’ high-performance piston challenge is a complete success. A milestone within the historical past of additive manufacturing at Porsche.
For extra data: www.zeiss.com/metrology
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